McArdle syndrome is the inability to break down glycogen. Glycogen is an important source of energy that is stored in muscle tissue.
Glycogen storage disease type V (GSDV); Myophosphorylase deficiency; Muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency; PYGM deficiency
McArdle syndrome is caused by a defect in a gene that makes an enzyme called glycogen phosphorylase. As a result, the body cannot break down glycogen in the muscles.
The disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. This means that you must get a copy of the nonworking gene from both parents. A person who gets a nonworking gene from only one parent usually does not develop this syndrome. A family history of McArdle syndrome increases the risk.
Symptoms usually start during early childhood. However, it may be difficult to separate these symptoms from those of normal childhood, and diagnosis may not occur until a person is in their 20s or 30s.
- Burgundy-colored urine (myoglobinuria)
- Exercise intolerance, poor stamina
- Muscle cramps
- Muscle pain
- Muscle stiffness
- Muscle weakness
Exams and Tests
The following tests may be performed:
There is no specific treatment, but you can manage the symptoms by improving exercise tolerance and controlling physical activity. Avoid excessive or intense exercise.
Dietary management should include having a supply of glucose (candy, for example) on hand if you need to replace energy.
Avoid general anesthesia.
For additional information and resources, visit the Association for Glycogen Storage Disease at www.agsdus.org.
People with McArdle syndrome can live a normal life by managing their physical activity.
Exercise may produce muscle pain, or even a breakdown of skeletal muscle (rhabdomyolysis). This condition is associated with burgundy-colored urine and a risk for kidney failure, if it is severe.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Contact your health care provider if you have repeated episodes of sore or cramped muscles after exercise, especially if you also have burgundy or pink urine.
Consider genetic counseling if you have a family history of McArdle disease.
A.D.A.M. Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, and David R. Eltz. Previously reviewed by Chad Haldeman-Englert, MD, Division of Human Genetics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network (1/21/2010).
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