Normal growth and development
A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods:
- Preschool years
- Middle childhood years
Immediately after birth, an infant normally loses about 5 - 10% of his or her birth weight. However, by about age 2 weeks, an infant should start to gain weight and grow quickly.
By age 4 - 6 months, an infant's weight should be double the birth weight. During the second half of the first year of life, growth is not as rapid. Between ages 1 and 2, a toddler will gain only about 5 pounds. Weight gain will remain at about 5 pounds per year between ages 2 - 5.
Between ages 2 - 10 years, a child will continue to grow at a steady pace. A final growth spurt begins at the start of puberty, sometime between ages 9 and 15.
The child's nutrient needs correspond with these changes in growth rates. An infant needs more calories in relation to size than a preschooler or school-age child needs. Nutrient needs increase again as a child gets close to adolescence.
Generally, a healthy child will follow an individual growth curve, even though the nutrient intake may be different for each child. Parents and caregivers should provide a diet that is appropriate for their child's age. They should offer a wide variety of foods to ensure their child is getting enough nutrition.
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND DIET
Poor nutrition can cause serious problems with intellectual development in children. A child with a poor diet may experience fatigue and be unable to fully participate in learning at school. Also, poor nutrition can make the child more likely to become sick and miss school.
Children who regularly do not get enough nutrition have poor growth patterns and underachieve at school. Getting enough of a good variety of food choices is important for a child's intellectual development. Breakfast is particularly important. Children may feel tired and unmotivated when their breakfast is too small or they skip breakfast.
Nutrition is so important for a child's intellectual development that the United States government put programs in place to make sure each child has at least one healthy, balanced meal a day. This meal is usually breakfast, because the relationship between breakfast and improved learning has been clearly shown. Programs are available in poor and underserved areas of the United States.
If you have concerns about your child's growth and development, talk to your health care provider.
For more information, see also:
Diet - intellectual development
Heird WC. Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 43.
Jennifer K. Mannheim, CPNP, private practice, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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